This chapter summarises the recommendations made in chapter 9-20. In most instances, it is up to a government department or agency at Cardiff, Holyrood or Westminster to take the first initiative. However, it is frequently not necessary or even desirable for other bodies to wait for government action. All individuals and organisations can be involved in advocating and lobbying for the implementation of the recommendations made in this report, and can set up pilot projects and feasibility studies at local and institutional levels. We introduce the recommendations by repeating the seven fundamental principles we proposed earlier.
Three central concepts: cohesion, equality and difference
People must be treated equally but also with due regard to real differences of experience, background and perception. These concepts need to be consistently and constantly central in government policy- and decision-making. High-profile statements of ideals by senior politicians and civil servants are important. They remain mere paper commitments or rhetoric, however, if they are not fully incorporated into all mainstream agendas and programmes. See in particular Chapter 4.
Demonstrable change at all levels
The concepts of equality and diversity must be driven through the government machinery at national and regional levels. Responsibility for making them real must be devolved to the local levels at which theory becomes practice, where real change does or does not take place. Verbal and financial commitment from the government is essential, but the test of real change is what happens on the ground. See in particular Chapter 20.
There must be a sustained and fearless attack on all forms of racial injustice. Such injustice threatens the very basis of citizenship. Street racism and violent racism must be dealt with, but so also must institutional racism. Among other things, the latter is a major factor in the climate in which street racism and violent racism go unchecked. Due regard must be paid to racism’s different targets: anti-black racism, anti-Muslim racism, anti-Gypsy racism, anti-Irish racism, antisemitism, and so on. See in particular Chapter 5.
Street racism and violent racism arise and flourish in situations of economic disadvantage and inequality. This is one major reason why social exclusion must be addressed; another is the fact that it disproportionately affects some (though not all) black, Asian and Irish communities. See in particular Chapter 6.
Colour-blind approaches do not work
There must be a commitment to go beyond the racism- and culture-blind strategies of social inclusion currently under way. Programmes such as the New Deal for Communities are essential. They must, however, have an explicit focus on race equality and cultural diversity. See in particular Chapters 6 and 9–14.
Empowering and enfranchising
There must be vigorous commitment to recognising cultural diversity through, for example, the systematic representation of black, Asian and Irish communities on public bodies. See in particular Chapters 16, 18 and 20.
A pluralistic culture of human rights
Human rights standards provide both an ethical and a legal basis for the changes required.
1 A formal declaration about principles of good policing practice in a multi-ethnic society should be drafted and agreed in every town or city.
2 The results of action research on improving the use of stop-and-search should be widely published and considered, and advice sought on what further research is needed.
3 Records categorised by ethnicity should be made of all stops under any legislative provision, not just PACE, and these should include ‘voluntary’ stops.
4 Police authorities should undertake publicity campaigns to ensure that the public knows the purpose and correct procedure of stops and is aware of its own rights.
5 Evaluation of the use of stop-and-search powers should take the arrest rate into account and focus on the more serious types of crime. Crimes of a minor nature, and especially those that result from an altercation arising from the stop itself, should be weighted lightly.
6 Local commanders should systematically examine how the power is currently used. They should deploy officers on the street to this end, and resulting improvements should be linked to specific objectives within the local crime strategy.
7 Relevant authorities should specify the competencies and core skills required in relation to race and diversity for all practitioners in the criminal justice system, and ensure that these are systematically considered in initial and continuing training, in recruitment and promotion systems, and in all staff appraisals.
8 The Home Office should commission evaluation and action research on the effectiveness of specialist training in issues of race and diversity for practitioners in the criminal justice system, and disseminate the findings to all interested parties and individuals.
9 All candidates for appointment to ACPO and ACPOS-status posts should have taken an accredited training module on issues of race equality and cultural diversity.
10 Every death in custody should be independently investigated when it occurs; in cases where it is considered that the actions of officers and other staff may have contributed to the death, they should be suspended from duty pending and during investigation; legal aid should be available for families during deaths in custody investigations; there should be full disclosure to families of all evidence and documents in deaths in custody investigations; information about the organisation INQUEST, which is able to provide counselling, advice and moral support, should be provided.
11 An independent body to investigate complaints against the police should be established.
12 In association with HMIC, the Home Office should commission an independent audit of progress in implementing the recommendations in the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry report, and ensure that its findings are widely disseminated.
13 HMIC’s Winning the Race inspection should be continued annually, with the involvement of local communities in each force area.
1 Research should be commissioned into the characteristics of persons convicted or cautioned for racially aggravated offences under the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, and through such research (a) the strategies most likely to reduce the levels of racist incidents and (b) the strategies most likely to be effective in the programmes being developed and applied by the prison and probation services for dealing with offending behaviour should be identified.
2 HM Chief Inspector of Prisons should carry out an urgent and thorough thematic inspection of race equality in prisons, similar to the inspection of the probation service completed in 1999/2000 by HM Chief Inspector of Probation.
3 A national committee or forum should be set up on the training of probation officers and prison officers on issues of race and diversity.
4 The government should review all procedures for dealing with complaints about racism in the criminal justice process to ensure that:
• an independent element is included in the investigation;
• investigators have an accredited qualification in dealing with issues of race and diversity.
5 The government should review the disciplinary procedures for public servants working in the criminal justice system to ensure consistently that they cannot evade responsibility for racist conduct by means of technical or procedural devices.
6 A Judicial Appointments Commission should be established to oversee all appointments and promotions within the magistracy and the higher judiciary, and to Queen’s Council, and it should seek to ensure that the judiciary is more diverse in terms of community background.
7 The government, the courts and the criminal justice services:
• should extend the use of ethnic monitoring to those existing functions of the criminal justice system not already covered, for example sentencing, criminal appeals and the work of the Criminal Cases Review Commission;
• should ensure that ethnic monitoring is systematically applied to the new functions and procedures introduced under recent legislation such as the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999, the Access to Justice Act 1999, the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000, the Terrorism Act 2000;
• should make the results available for public discussion and for independent inspection, audit and research;
• should ensure that monitoring is carried out rigorously and with integrity, and that staff in central government and throughout the system have the expertise to draw the correct conclusions, and apply them to the formation of policy and the development of professional practice;
• should prepare and publish appraisals of the effects of its policies and measures.
7 Qualitative research on perceptions of fairness in the criminal justice system should be undertaken, with particular regard to race and diversity issues.
8 The government should review and improve the quality of the data included each year in Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System.
9 The criteria for appointment to all public bodies, especially those set up under recent legislation, should include a requirement that candidates demonstrate their ability to understand and act in the best interests of all sections of the communities for which they have responsibility.
10 Such organisations should be required to specify in their reports the action they have taken to promote race equality.
1 National authorities should require local authorities and individual schools to maintain substantially more detailed and helpful statistics on ethnicity than hitherto, and ensure that there is high-quality training available on how such statistics are to be analysed and used.
2 Inspectors should provide detailed guidance to schools on how they should collect, analyse and use statistical information broken down by ethnicity.
3 A voluntary organisation, in co-operation with other organisations, should produce a handbook for schools on issues of race equality and cultural diversity.
4 An understanding of human rights principles, and their relevance to everyday life, should be part of the citizenship curriculum taught in every school, for pupils of all ages.
5 Work financed under the auspices of the EMAG grant should be independently evaluated. Particular regard should be paid to the grant’s impact on raising the achievement of African-Caribbean pupils, and reducing their experience of exclusion.
6 There should be a substantial programme of certificated training for specialists in teaching English as an Additional Language.
7 In England a specific Standards Fund grant should be used for in-service training in race equality and cultural diversity.
8 Issues of race equality and cultural diversity should be properly covered in initial teacher training, and should be mandatory in all major programmes of management development for head teachers and deputy heads.
9 Funding should be provided for a systematic programme of Training the Trainers courses.
10 The government should set targets for reducing nationally the numbers of exclusions experienced by pupils of particular community backgrounds. The targets should refer to fixed-term exclusions as well as to permanent exclusions. Further, we recommend that pilot schemes should be established in certain schools. Appropriate funding should be provided and research should identify the lessons to be learned.
11 Training for all members of governors’ disciplinary committees and appeal panels should be provided; in-service training in non-confrontational approaches to discipline and conflict resolution should be organised for staff; a member of the governing body should serve as an advocate for any student facing permanent exclusion, or a student should be represented by an advocate of their choice; and procedures should require the head teacher to explain and justify how and why the school has failed to provide the necessary support.
12 All inspection reports should include the heading ‘Race Equality and Cultural Diversity’, and high-quality training should be provided for all inspectors.
13 The national authorities should fund independent bodies of trained advocates.
14 Schools and local authorities should develop closer working relationships with local supplementary schools, parents’ groups and community organisations.
15 In each country a national working party should be set up to examine and evaluate the impact of the inspection system on issues of race equality and cultural diversity in schools and local authorities.
16 The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority should require that all exam boards offer only syllabuses in which it is possible to gain at least a C grade at each tier and that all schools monitor tier entry by ethnicity.
17 Independent research should be commissioned to assess the impact on issues of race equality and cultural diversity of recent initiatives intended to benefit all pupils but which may in fact have failed to benefit, or have actually disadvantaged, pupils from certain communities.
18 In each country a forum should be set up in which government officials, academics, practitioners and representatives of non-governmental organisations can jointly review developments in education which have an impact on issues of race equality and cultural diversity.
1 A national cultural policy should be developed through widespread participation and consultation. It should pay particular attention to issues of cultural inclusion and identity.
2 Organisations funded by public bodies should lose some of their funding if they do not make changes in their staff and governance, and do not demonstrably make their programmes and activities more inclusive.
3 Every major arts organisation should commission an independent audit of its programmes, output, employment profile, representation of wider society and financial investment.
4 Broadcasters and franchise-holders should be required to provide statistics broken down by ethnicity and gender in relation to grades and categories such as producer, editor and camera operator, and by management level.
5 Contracts and franchises should depend on the production of plans (a) to increase black and Asian staff at all levels and grades; (b) to commission more work from black and Asian producers; and (c) to ensure that a proportion of programmes tackle issues of race equality and cultural diversity.
6 The BBC should make the employment and contracting of black and Asian staff and producers an integral part of its latest reviews.
7 Broadcasters should seek to encourage the promotion of black and Asian people to commissioning editor roles and management positions.
8 Broadcasters and other bodies should find and develop ways of improving networking opportunities for black and Asian people in the industry.
9 Broadcasters should use their websites to provide open-tender documents.
10 Programming targets should be set similar to those which exist for countries and regions.
11 Large established production companies should on occasion be required to work in partnership with smaller companies that have developed distinctive expertise in creating programmes about race and cultural diversity.
12 Voluntary-sector organisations should seek funds to set up media monitoring projects, in order that they may complain regularly about coverage they find offensive. Newspapers and television companies should be named and shamed in high-profile ways.
13 Every newspaper should publish, both in its pages and on its website, a breakdown of its staff by gender, ethnicity and seniority. The breakdowns should be regularly updated and should be accompanied by statements of the paper’s plans to increase the employment of black and Asian staff.
14 The regulatory framework for digital TV should include, at least in the short term, protection for programme suppliers who will offer channels targeted at particular cultural interests.
15 The implications and workings of the new digital universe should be closely monitored.
16 There should be further pooling of experience from the range of anti-racist projects that have been implemented in football clubs, and lessons for other major sports should be learned.
17 The administrations at Cardiff, Holyrood and Westminster should issue policy statements on the interconnections between the arts, media and sport in the development of Britain as a multi-ethnic society.
1 There should be substantial black, Asian and Irish representation, both professional and lay, on the Service Delivery and Organisation Research and Delivery programme.
2 Research into the impact of racism on health should be accorded a high priority within the health research programme.
3 Targets should be applied to other care issues, for example the provision of interpreting services throughout the health service and culturally specific food in hospitals and residential care homes. Targets should not be colour-blind. For example, waiting lists should not just be monitored, but monitored by ethnicity also.
4 Record-keeping and monitoring by ethnicity, use of the data to set targets, and race equality audits using appropriate categories should be established, as they are an essential part of any efficient management system, both in health and social services. Specific results must be sought which must be qualitative as well as quantitative.
5 More interpreters should be trained and appointed. All NHS primary care trusts should be required to have a contract with a telephone interpreting service.
6 Child benefit, linked to each individual child, should be increased significantly, to give every child living in poverty, from whatever background, a better chance in life.
7 The DoH should require social services departments to record information about the ethnicity, religion and language of all children receiving direct services of any kind.
8 All those employed in the health and social welfare services should be trained in cultural awareness and sensitivity.
9 One-stop shops for health issues, including parenting education, should be more widely established. All parenting advice should be available to both mothers and fathers, and men should be encouraged to participate.
10 Targets should be set for co-ordinated inter-agency action to cut the numbers of young black and Asian men held in state institutions.
11 Greater priority should be given in housing allocation to helping members of families to live near to each other because of the benefits of mutual support.
12 The state should recognise the advantages of extended families and the support they can offer to the old, the young and the infirm.
13 There should be monitoring by ethnicity of short-term contracts; external as well as internal advertisement of all DoH posts; medical recruitment advertising in the black and Asian press; training in equalities issues in recruitment and selection for all medical recruitment panel members; and acceptance of the recommendations of the ‘Recruitment of Doctors’ guidelines produced by the BMA in January 2000. The DoH should undertake a thorough review and overhaul of the consultant merit award system to ensure that issues of equity and diversity are central to its operation, and targets should be set for black and Asian membership of the councils of all Royal Colleges.
14 The DoH should provide guidance for candidates to medical school in order to encourage those coming from family backgrounds other than medicine. The DoH should use its sponsorship of student doctors to support the anti-racist drive of the Council of Heads of Medical Schools’ action programme against discrimination in admissions.
1 As a matter of priority the government should place a statutory duty on all employers to create and implement equity employment plans.
2 Achievement of Investors in People status should in future be conditional on the formulation and implementation of an employment equity plan, and equity issues should be explicitly and comprehensively covered in the Business Excellence Model’s guidance materials.
3 Guidance on public procurement and the award of subsidies for investment, for example Regional Selective Assistance, should be revised to stress the importance of employment equity.
4 All organisations delivering New Deal programmes should be required to demonstrate that they are contributing positively to employment equity. If they cannot demonstrate this their responsibilities should be transferred to others.
5 Organisations providing personal adviser services should be required to ensure that persons from black and Asian backgrounds are equitably involved in their programmes, both as managers and as advisers.
6 Research should be commissioned on the contributions of Asian and black firms to UK Gross National Product or UK trade balances.
7 The DTI and the Small Business Service (SBS) should commission research into Asian and black business start-up and survival patterns, with a view to formulating local targets and contributing to SBS national strategies.
8 Targets should be set at SBS national council and local council levels for increasing the take-up of support by Asian and black small businesses.
9 The Banking Code and the Mortgage Code should include undertakings on non-discrimination.
10 All providers of financial services should monitor and improve their procedures and ensure that key staff receive race and diversity training.
11 There should be monitoring by ethnicity of lending decisions by financial institutions.
12 British Trade International and Business Links partnerships should set targets for working more closely with the Asian and black business sector, and for highlighting the possibility of international trade as a mechanism for encouraging growth.
13 Business support agencies should develop their expertise in advising and assisting the independent retail sector, and all agencies involved in urban regeneration and business development should recognise the value of independent retailers.
1 The UK government should take action to bring British nationality law into line with international human rights standards, and to deal with the statelessness and racial and ethnic divisions that have been created by its present policies.
2 The public funds requirement should be removed for the spouses and children of British citizens and permanent residents, and time-limited for all other family members. Family visits should not be dependent on having the means to put up large sums of money in bonds.
3 Appeal rights relating to deportation should be fully restored.
4 The government should carry out and publicise research into the economic impact, and the potential economic benefits, of immigration.
5 Urgent action should be taken to remedy defects in the systems for determining asylum claims and supporting asylum-seekers; and to provide better settlement services for those granted asylum.
This should involve:
• improving the initial decision-making process to ensure that asylum-seekers have the opportunity properly to present their cases, with appropriate legal advice, to decision-makers who are properly trained and well informed; and providing sufficient resources to improve quality and minimise delays;
• government support for asylum-seekers so that those whose claims are accepted have the best chance of successful settlement: this could best be achieved through cash support (at not less than the basic income support level) and a choice of available housing, and must include language and skills training and social orientation;
• a co-ordinated approach to the settlement needs of those granted asylum, so that the Social Exclusion Unit, or a similar body, with the help of refugee community organisations, can identify needs and develop a national strategy for meeting them.
6 We recommend the removal of the exemption in the Race Relations (Amendment) Act permitting discrimination on grounds of ethnic or national origin.
7 Independent experts should examine all existing legislation, rules, procedures, guidelines and decision-making criteria for their compliance with the Human Rights Act.
8 The government should accept responsibility for encouraging and leading a positive debate on asylum and immigration, through its own publicity mechanisms, and by commissioning research and providing information.
9 The UK should use its best efforts to promote an EU immigration and asylum policy that is aligned with the principles and recommendations of this report and with international human rights standards; and should welcome EU initiatives, such as the enhancement of family reunion and third country nationals’ rights, which move towards these goals.
10 An independent commission on all aspects of immigration, nationality and asylum should be established.
1 Each political party should publish a statement showing how it will avoid playing, or appearing to play, the race card in the next general election. The statement should be quoted in the party manifesto, and brought to the attention of all candidates and party workers. Each party should conduct an audit by ethnicity of its own membership, and should draw up and publish plans on how it proposes to ensure that more Asian and black candidates are selected for safe and winnable seats.
2 The Appointments Commission should have a statutory duty to ensure that the second chamber is more representative of the country in terms of ethnicity. In any one year, during at least the next 5–10 years, at least 15 per cent of new members should be from Asian and black community backgrounds.
3 At least 30 per cent of newly appointed black and Asian peers in any one year should be women.
1 In all faith communities there should be closer connections between anti-racism and inter-faith relations.
2 Legislation should be introduced which prohibits direct and indirect discrimination on grounds of religion or belief. A statement of general principles should be drawn up on reasonable accommodation in relation to religious and cultural diversity in the workplace and in schools, and case-study examples of good practice should be provided.
3 A study should be made of police responses to hate crimes containing a religious component.
4 A commission on the role of religion in the public life of a multi-faith society should be set up to make recommendations on legal and constitutional matters.
1 The government should:
• create further co-ordinating structures;
• require the various inspection regimes to work more closely together on issues of race equality and cultural diversity, with a view to improving their practices;
• arrange a programme of equality and diversity inspections of its own departments;
• commission impact assessments of all new policies that have the potential to exert a detrimental influence on race equality and recognition of cultural diversity;
• commission independent research on the impact of recent government measures which may have had a detrimental effect on race equality and recognition of cultural diversity;
• consult widely with interested and experienced persons and organisations on the race equality performance management framework currently being developed;
• set up for each department and also for the government as a whole an advisory forum on race equality and cultural diversity issues.
1 There should be a single Equality Act in Britain. It should be supplemented by regulations and regularly updated codes of practice on specific subjects. Both the Act and its supporting documentation should be written in plain language.
2 A new Equality Act in Britain should lead towards the creation of a single Equality Commission, covering all grounds of unlawful discrimination.
3 Existing auditing bodies should have formal responsibility for inspection and audit of public sector equality schemes, and they should require progress towards fair participation and fair access over a defined period of time. The Commission for Racial Equality, or proposed Equality Commission, should have power to issue compliance notices, and in the event of non-compliance to apply to a court or tribunal for an order requiring the public body to comply.
4 In addition to an Equality Commission responsible for enforcing equality legislation, there should be a Human Rights Commission for Britain whose functions would include the review of legislation, scrutiny of draft legislation, the provision of advice and assistance to individuals and guidance to public authorities, the conduct of investigations and inquiries, and the general promotion of a human rights culture.
5 The UK government should agree to allow individuals access to the UN complaints system if they believe that their rights under the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination have been infringed. The government should give greater priority to fulfilling its obligations under international human rights agreements, and to making the public aware of the commitments that have been made.
6 Officials in central, devolved and local administrations should ensure that the procedures that they are operating on human rights issues are harmonised with procedures on equality issues.
7 The Parliamentary Human Rights Committee should ensure that it has a strong focus on race equality issues.
8 The UK government should formally declare that the United Kingdom is a multicultural state, and should issue a draft declaration for consultation.
1 Evaluative studies should be made of leadership styles in relation to race and diversity issues, and good practice should be disseminated.
2 A task force should be set up to clarify the objectives and content of racism awareness training, and to develop guidelines and standards on practical methodology and organisation.
3 Official guidance should be issued on monitoring by ethnicity, and on the collection, interpretation and use of statistical data.
All voluntary organisations
Should consider the report, particularly in relation to their advocacy, lobbying, campaigning and partnership activities with public bodies.
The Runnymede Trust
1 Should ensure that a summary of this report is sent to all public bodies shortly after its publication and that follow-up enquiries are made to all recipients, approximately one year after publication, in order to ascertain how the report has been discussed and acted on.
2 Should organise a number of conferences and seminars at which particular parts of this report are considered and debated.
3 In collaboration and partnership with other non-governmental organisations, should adopt a watchdog role in relation to the implementation of the recommendations in this report, and publish and disseminate reviews and evaluations of progress. Such reviews and evaluations should be available on a website as well as in print.